Maktaba.com
Home > Science subjects > Chemistry notes for O-level


1.5.0 Matter

1.5.2 States of matter

Desiccators - Keeps substances constantly dry

Effervescence - The escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing which results from the release of this gas

Efflorescent - The loss of water or a solvent of crystallization from a hydrated or solvated salt to the atmosphere on exposure to air

Hygroscopic Substance - One which absorbs water from the atmosphere when exposed to air without forming a solution

Precipitation - The formation of a solid in a solution

Saturated Solution - One which cannot dissolve any more solute at a particular temperature

Saturation Point - The point when a solution cannot dissolve any more of a substance and the excess will appear as precipitate

Suspension - A heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that have not yet fallen to the bottom as precipitate

Miscibility - Liquids ability to mix with each other forming a homologous solution

Miscible Liquids - Pairs of liquids which mix together uniformly in any proportion (ex. water and alcohol)

Immiscible Liquids - Pairs of liquids which do not mix completely and form two separate layers (ex. water and oils)

Solubility - Is the ability of a solute to dissolve in a liquid solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent

Solute - A substance which dissolves in a solvent (e.g. common salt, NaCl is a solute, water is a solvent)

Solvent - A substance which dissolves a solute (e.g. water)

Mixture - A material system of two or more different substances which are mixed together but not combined chemically

Heterogeneous Mixture - A mixture where the composition is not uniform

Homogeneous Mixture - A mixture where the composition is uniform

Why air is a mixture - Can be separated by physical means, composition is variable, no energy is given out when air is formed, its properties are the average of its constituent gases



Download complete notes


Home | Contact Us | Science | Arts |Technical studies.
©Elimuyetu.co.tz, Designed by:Aurelio Mofuga.