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1.5.0 Matter

1.5.2 States of matter

Desiccators - Keeps substances constantly dry

Effervescence - The escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing which results from the release of this gas

Efflorescent - The loss of water or a solvent of crystallization from a hydrated or solvated salt to the atmosphere on exposure to air

Hygroscopic Substance - One which absorbs water from the atmosphere when exposed to air without forming a solution

Precipitation - The formation of a solid in a solution

Saturated Solution - One which cannot dissolve any more solute at a particular temperature

Saturation Point - The point when a solution cannot dissolve any more of a substance and the excess will appear as precipitate

Suspension - A heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that have not yet fallen to the bottom as precipitate

Miscibility - Liquids ability to mix with each other forming a homologous solution

Miscible Liquids - Pairs of liquids which mix together uniformly in any proportion (ex. water and alcohol)

Immiscible Liquids - Pairs of liquids which do not mix completely and form two separate layers (ex. water and oils)

Solubility - Is the ability of a solute to dissolve in a liquid solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent

Solute - A substance which dissolves in a solvent (e.g. common salt, NaCl is a solute, water is a solvent)

Solvent - A substance which dissolves a solute (e.g. water)

Mixture - A material system of two or more different substances which are mixed together but not combined chemically

Heterogeneous Mixture - A mixture where the composition is not uniform

Homogeneous Mixture - A mixture where the composition is uniform

Why air is a mixture - Can be separated by physical means, composition is variable, no energy is given out when air is formed, its properties are the average of its constituent gases

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